ITALY

1. TENUTA CANNONA (Piedmont – ITALY)

Study case: Non-irrigated hillslope vineyard with different inter-row management

Location: 44°40’N, 8°37’E, 296 m asl

Land use: Vineyard

Soils: Highly altered gravel, sand, and silty clay deposits, with red alteration products. The soils are derived from reworked Pleistocene alluvium, with a clay-loam to loam texture.

Climate: Temperate, with a mean annual air temperature of 13°C and an average annual precipitation of 850 mm mainly concentrated in spring (April and May) and autumn (October and November).

Land management: Vine rows aligned along the slope, vines spaced 1.0 m along the row and 2.8 m between the rows. 3 different inter-row management: (i) conventional tillage, processed with chisel at a depth of about 0.25 m; (ii) reduced tillage, with rotary cultivator to a depth of 0.15 m; and (iii) controlled grass cover with spontaneous grass controlled with mulcher during the year.

Catchment: Po river basin.

2. VEZZOLANO EXPERIMENTAL FARM (Piedmont – ITALY)

Study case: Non-irrigated hillslope vineyard

Location: 45°08’N, 7°96’E, 426 m asl

Land Use: Vineyard

Soils: Silt loam soil resting on marls (middle Miocene).

Climate: Temperate, with a mean annual air temperature of 11,3°C and an average annual precipitation of 841 mm mainly concentrated in spring (May) and autumn (October and November).

Land management 1: Rows at 2,75 m across the hillslope, with S-E aspect, arranged with slight longitudinal slope (2-10%), terracing at the head of every 4 rows, to mitigate the hillslope to 12-20%. Every 20 rows a wider inter-row (link levelling road) with uphill counterslope to collect and divert to the head-rows the drainage water. 2 different inter-row management: (i) conventional tillage (CT), processed by autumn ploughing, one pass of rotary cultivator under the row, two tillings, one moving and chopping of the herbs; and (ii) controlled grass cover with spontaneous grass controlled by mulcher during the year (3-4 times) and one application of herbicide under the vine row.

Land management 2: Rows at 2,75 m along the hillslope, with S-O aspect. Inter-row management: controlled grass cover with spontaneous grass controlled by mulcher during the year (3-4 times) and one application of herbicide under the vine row.

Catchment: Po river basin.